The human rights struggle against imported Climate Injustice in Africa
by Samantha Asumadu
Although Africa has contributed little to global warming, the continent and other parts of the developing world are bearing the brunt of the resultant climate change, according to scientists and development specialists. The question now is what to do about it before the fallout has disastrous consequences?
In March 2010 Torrential rain in eastern Uganda touched off a series of mudslides killing over 300 people and causing devastation in villages.
“I think the issue is over population encouraged by the president. Uneducated people with no knowledge of birth control need more and more land to cater for their families, cutting down trees in their path to self sufficiency.“
Watch some of the videos I filmed at the time here (Disturbing images)
I was working with Katherine Haywood and between filming we would both be doing phone interviews with CNN, Sky & France24. I mention this to explain how fraught and busy we were. At one point we had split up and Katherine called me to arrange to meet so she could do a piece to camera. She called and said ‘follow the black coffin, I am just near it’. So I finished filming a woman who had been dug from underneath the mud, they cleaned her body and prepared her for burial. I followed the black coffin. I had been walking for around an hour with a few locals from another village who had come to see if they could help with the rescue mission (though there was no one to be rescued at this point as they were all either drowned in the mud or hit by boulders - it had rained heavily for many days before). We came across a gushing river whose bridge had been swept away by the rain; a tree trunk laid across had been used as a makeshift bridge.
Kindly someone offered to hold my camera equipment bag and walking stick and I inched along the trunk, glad that I had no fear of water. We continued to walk up the hill/mountain and came across another landslide site which hadn’t been discovered yet. We all noticed some bodies poking limply out of the mud but silently agreed amongst ourselves not to comment. At this point a light rain had begun to fall, one gentleman pointed out that we should hurry as this place was unsecure and the mountain above was likely to slide again. We hurried. By now we had been walking two hours or so with no sign of Katherine or any other journalists for that matter. Another 15 minutes and we were at the destination, a small village with a small population. I thanked my companions and went to ask the nearest mourner ‘have you seen the muzungus?’ (colloquial term for white person) They shook their head, no. I asked ‘Have you seen the black coffin?’ They said ‘there are many black coffins over there’. Finally looking around I realized the whole village were in mourning. I went to the room with the coffins, still no muzungus. It hit me then I had spent over two hours walking away from my colleagues. I looked at my phone and had no signal. I had lost any means of contacting them firstly to ask where they were and secondly to tell them where I was. I thought my boyfriend at the time may have been particularly worried. I found one of the local village leaders, Joseph and we sat down to have a chat. He had been down in Bududa helping to try and find survivors and had come back up to his village to bury his sister and brother who had been killed. I noticed at this point there was a large mountain looming to the left and above us. It had a few patches of fresh mud, where some land had already slid off. I asked him ‘So if that mountain was to slide again, would it cover here?’ gesticulating to the village we sat in. He said ‘Yes’ I asked then rather more tremulously ‘Ok, what about if we stood up there?’ Pointing to a place further up and way from the mountain. He said, ‘No, but a boulder would come and hit you anyway’. Deflated, I became quiet.
A few minutes later I was offered a cold drink from the small shack that doubled as the village shop, luckily I had my last 1,000 shiling note (approx 30p) to offer to them. I sat and started to look at the photos and videos that I had taken earlier in the day. A small crowd gathered around, they were happy to chat and were entirely responsible for cheering me up and making me realise that my temporary situation was nothing compared to what they had faced & were facing. I spoke to a young girl with a baby in her arms. She told me her story. She had been in Bududa and had become concerned with the heavy rain as she knew that this area was particularly prone to landslides, it was only a few minutes before the big landslide happened that she decided to go up to the village we were currently in and she had run for her and her baby’s lives as the mountain came down and killed over 300 people, her neighbours. I had come across another woman earlier that day and one the night before (see videos) who had also managed to survive with their babies and can only guess that it is that instinctual, primal bond between Mother and child that made them fight for their lives even more and allowed them to narrowly escape.
As the rain stopped, Joseph offered to walk me down the mountain to where all our cars were parked. I took him up on his kind offer, someone said it should only take 30 minutes to walk down, which was a relief, then someone else pointed out she is not from here it will take an hour. We had been walking an hour when we came across another gushing river, this time the bridge was half intact, which is where I took this picture.
It was another hour before we reached the bottom of the mountain, we had a pleasant chat as we went. Joseph called himself a peasant, which I was surprised at as he was obviously educated and observant but this referred to his farming. He was a great fan of Musevini and felt blessed that the president had come to visit their small isolated place. I let that one go.
As we reached the bottom, nothing looked familiar – we were not at the point of the mountain that I had embarked to climb at 6.30am that morning. It was now around 5.40pm. Sunset was at 7pm. He had taken me to the other side of the mountain, through no fault f his own, I had just been remiss at describing where I had needed to get to! The village was vibrant and buzzing, I realised that they had been sipping from packets of waragi (Ugandan gin) most of the day commiserating with their lost brothers and sisters. They too were happy to crowd around as I showed them some photos and they arranged to find me a boda boda (motorbike taxi) to take me to where the other journalists were waiting.
Photo taken on the boda boda journey back
I said goodbye to Joseph, the kindest man I had ever met. (We kept in contact until I came to London & then through my ex who went on a follow up visit, but its now been over a year since I heard from him.) I hope he is safe and II will see him when I next go back to Uganda. That’s the end of my tale. Except to say whilst going up the mountain and before I lost phone signal I got a call from Deutsche Welle accepting my proposal to go to DRC and do a short feature about the DNA fingerprinting of Blood Minerals. That tale is for another day.
Video here: Congo: Combating Illegal Coltan Mining
Photo taken in Bukavu, Congo:
Articles & quotes
Deforestation is being cited as a key cause of Uganda’s recent landslides, which have claimed the lives of an estimated three hundred people. So what is being done to control logging, in a mountainous country that has lost over a quarter of its forest cover in the last twenty years?
The snow atop Mt. Kilimanjaro is receding. Lake Chad is evaporating. Increased flooding, drought, water shortages, rising sea levels and food insecurity are only some of the consequences of climate change across Africa. Already these shifts are having an impact on livelihoods.
“We see frequent crop failures due to droughts and untimely rain leading to crop failures. We also see livestock fatalities, resulting in people losing lots of cattle,” Professor Pius Yanda, director of the Institute of Resource Assessment at the University of Dar es Salaam, recently told a panel on climate change and climate justice in the Tanzanian city. “We see flooding destroying infrastructure, settlements, leaving crops in the field. These are vivid examples of impacts which are taking place already.”
Heightened competition for dwindling resources, such as water and arable land, increases chances for conflict, which has its own consequences: violence, deaths, displacement, disease and violations of human rights.
Kampala — President Museveni last week described the landslide in Bududa as a great tragedy that should make the country rethink the practices that interfere with God’s natural engineering.
“God knew what He was doing when He said: This is a mountain, a swamp, a river,” he said in a statement. “This should wake us up and make us act correctly.” He announced that he would engage the stakeholders after his Prosperity for All tour to find a lasting solution and “seek better ways for a healthy co-existence between man and nature”.
Unlike the earthquake that hit Chile a week ago, the landslides in Uganda are entirely man-made disasters. Deforestation and cultivation on mountain slopes as a result of population pressure are to blame.
The Government urgently needs to revisit its population and environment policies if it does not want to see its achievements of the last two decades overturned by natural disasters.
The NRM embraced capitalism as the ideology that can bring prosperity but it failed to make the necessary corrections to protect the environment. The President often argues that a big population is not a problem. He refers to a country like the UK which is the size of Uganda but has 62 million people.
The difference, he says, is that the UK is highly industrialised and few people depend on land for survival. But the UK is also among the top 10 countries that produce carbon dioxide emissions, responsible for climate change.
By industrialising, Uganda will add its name to the list of countries emitting carbon dioxide and make its own contribution to climate change. And by not industrialising fast enough to keep pace with the growing population, Ugandans will inevitably interfere even more with God’s natural engineering, leading to more disasters.
Checking the uncontrolled population growth is one way of restoring the balance with nature. Better planning of human settlements and reforestation through massive tree-planting campaigns are other ways.
The President should not wait until the end of his Prosperity For All tour to address the problem. The environment should be part and parcel of his gospel, to ensure that the prosperity achieved is sustainable.
Former Irish president Mary Robinson told the audience at the panel, which was a centerpiece of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation Forum on climate change, food security and regional economic integration last November, that climate change is a human rights issue.
“The phenomenon of climate change will undermine progress on almost all of the human rights guaranteed in the universal declaration of human rights and other international human rights instruments - and also undermine achievements, particularly for the poorest countries, of the “Millennium Development Goals” to reduce poverty and boost development, said Robinson, former United Nations high commissioner on human rights.
She said climate change was a classic human rights struggle about power: those with the greatest power - mainly developed nations - produced most of the greenhouse gases that have contributed to global warming, while those in developing countries, with the least power, were most at risk from the consequences.
Katherine Sierra, vice president for sustainable development at the World Bank, said, for example, that if all the SUV’s in the United States were replaced with European standard emission cars, that would largely account for the emissions that would give 1.6 billion people – the world’s poorest - minimum access to energy. “You could afford to provide 1.6 billion people worth of basic energy to those people who don’t have any emissions today, so it’s a basic fairness,” she said.
Governance Seen as Central
Regardless of who is more responsible for global warming, the panelists emphasized that the time to act was now. Yanda said the way forward is to integrate climate change in the development agenda because it is a crosscutting issue like poverty and Aids. Like the presenters on food security and economic integration, the climate panelists spoke in the context of cell-phone entrepreneur Mo Ibrahim’s conviction that good governance is essential to solving such pressing problems.
U.S. Representative Donald Payne (Democrat - New Jersey), agreed. Payne, chair of the House Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, quoted former UN secretary general Kofi Annan as saying industrialized nations must live up to the “historic responsibility” for the accumulation of greenhouse gases.
“But on the other hand, if all of the things were mitigated and unless there are changes in many countries in a manner in which governments deal with agriculture and its people and governance in general, the problem will not be solved,” he said. “So it’s a two-way street. We need to do what we must do there, but by the same token, leadership in Africa has to stand up and do a much better job than what it’s done to date.”
African environmentalists point to the fact that the continent provided a unified position during recent climate talks in Copenhagen as a step forward in dealing with the challenges of global warming.
In fact, in the face of the potential for disastrous consequences of climate change, some stakeholders see opportunity, although it is not one that Africans can easily achieve without external assistance and private sector support.
“Whilst it’s true you are not a large emitter [of greenhouse gases], there are opportunities to get access to some of the new technologies,” said Sierra, of the World Bank. “Whether it’s geo-thermal, whether it’s wind, whether it’s off-grid solar and the like, [you can] modernize your energy systems while you’re growing.”
Scientists who have been warning about the climate-fueled perils to come are struggling to find reasons to be optimistic. African officials, business leaders and civil society representatives who attended the Mo Ibrahim event acknowledged the daunting challenges of coping with the earth’s overall warming. But they found ideas to explore, options to pursue and reasons to hope that Africans can be a part of the global solution - if, that is, the world community can find the political will and the financial resources to partner with the least culpable but most affected region.
When I Was in Northern Uganda: Kony’s backyard.
I first went to Gulu
by Samantha Mgbele-Asumadu
I first went to Gulu, Northern Uganda in 2007 to film a ‘peace conference’ various tribal and religious leaders, MPs, Law & Order and a King, (bussed in from Oxford where he was studying) had gathered to discuss peace going forwards. It was a muted atmosphere with a lot of kind and well intentioned people gathered. Lots of excitement when President Museveni arrived with his entourage, fleet of shiny cars and of course the PBG – Museveni’s Private Army within an army, very clever chaps, far more astute than the UPDF (Ugandan Army) accused of human rights abuses in Karamoja.
The elephant in the room was Sam Kolo - a former brutal leader in the LRA who had laid down his arms/machete and been embraced back in to the fold. This course of action was preferred i.e. Amnesty, so that fighters would be more likely to desert. Though I qualify that by saying there are very few willing participants in Kony’s orgies of murder, and pillage. Most were either abducted, had nowhere else to go when their families had been killed or their families had turned their back on them. All are brainwashed.
However this is not a history lesson on the Lords Resistance Army it has been an over 20-year conflict that has moved from Uganda, to Sudan, to Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo. There is plenty written about it that has been articulated far better than I could do here and now. However I will say briefly that the LRA was formed after the failed attempt by Joseph Kony’s Aunt Alice Lakwena & her ‘Holy Spirit Movement’ to take on the Uganda state. Before every battle her fighters would cover themselves with butter as this she said would be enough to protect them from bullets. She herself would ride a bicycle in to battle.
Kony based the formation of his ‘Army’ on the 10 commandments, with his own strange interpretation. In his words “Is it bad? It is not against human rights. And that commandment was not given by Joseph. It was not given by LRA. No, those commandments were given by God.”
His goal was to liberate the Acholi people from the State run by Museveni’s tribe; the Ankole. Members of President Museveni’s ethnic group, Bahiima populate the upper ranks of Uganda’s government He is likened to a cultural leader who favours his own tribe and often the Ankole are blamed for nepotism, corruption and land stealing. In socio economic sense they are at the top of the tribal pile in Uganda. Meaning that many have migrated to Kampala, the capital city.
However Kony’s ‘good’ intentions did not last long, he learnt well from Museveni’s armed insurgency of the 70’s & 80’s that Child soldiers were a useful tool to brainwash and use as they were in his eyes disposable. He had learnt well from his masters, (former colonials and what is now known as the political party the NRM, National Resistance Movement, which Museveni is the head of) His 10 commandments were a mess of mysticism and misogyny. For a very long time now he has had no political rhyme or reason and his brutal parallel reign has been foremost about creating and sustaining his own personal fiefdom. Kony has few very supporters apart from those he brainwashed when he captured them, who live in fear of him and his prophecies. I worked for years with a former child soldier who still talks about him with reverence, because she was brainwashed.
Now you get my drift, but it is 2012, so you may ask what has changed?
So in 2007 I went there for peace building, in 2008 I went there to film part six of the series ‘Jazz My Life’ for a Kampala based, Ugandan owned production company. I was production manager and scriptwriter and general dogsbody but I did hold the budget so was able to sneak away for a steak at the Acholi Inn at one point: )
The live road show was taken around different major cities in Uganda, live music, dancing, comedy for university students competing to be ‘jazzed’ Think of our own makeover shows and multiply the buzz by ten as it was the first show of its kind in Uganda. The generators failing did curtail the night around midnight, but we were happy to go to bed after a long day filming with Gulu University students. My last visit to Gulu was in 2010; my boyfriend had been on a 2-month working trip to South Sudan. So two friends and I drove up to meet him as Gulu was in the middle. We went for a holiday and break from Kampala. The weekend consisted of good food, booze, dancing and reconnecting with old friends. I was even told some months ago by Laura Seay @texasinafrica that there was a hotel in an IDP camp (I’ll discuss the camps in the second article of this series) which was owned by one of the locals (she did qualify that she’d come across some creepy crawlies i.e. bed begs so don’t see this as a recommendation) You may wonder why I’d wish to expose my past life? Here’s why, does any of this sound like the Northern Uganda that Invisible Children ‘exposed’? No? That’s because they misrepresented and lied about Uganda, causing its people hurt and potentially damaging its economy going forward. I hope the damage is repairable.
#KONY2012 came to my notice late one night I was traversing between facebook and twitter as you do and someone had posted the video on both saying this film needed donations. My eyebrows raised and then raised even further when I realised whom the donations would go to ‘Invisible Children’. They had long been exposed as self-promoters who had no sense of the danger they put ordinary Ugandans in. I wrote this comment under the post:
“Kony could have been caught 20 years ago, it was politically convenient for the Uganda government to let him terrorize the Acholi people, the U.S colluded with that. The U.S now has troops apparently helping Uganda troops in CAR & DRC to catch him, how does this film help that? Genuinely interested.”
I got no reply, I think the poster had not counted on anyone questioning his well intentioned video post So from then until now I have been answering questions, writing pithy ripostes, refusing CNN phone interviews, (they hadn’t realised I was no longer in Uganda I left in 2010 after 3 very good years. I miss all that rushing about breaking news gathering stuff, but am sure I was just the go to girl as a black face in an African country with an English accent and it went down well in the U.S! Last time I did interviews for them and filming was for the terror attack - AlShabab perpetuated in 2010 at the final minutes of the of the World Cup Final. I gave them some numbers and emailed them with addresses of journo friends that are still there both foreign & local, ones that I know DON’T support Invisible Children!)
When the BBC broadcasted the 2nd in command of the FDLR (DRC/Rwanda) saying that their insurgency was not finished and was far from being over it served as a rallying of FDLR troops. This helps explain why I am always tweeting about responsible journalism. The FDLR were finished, their leader no longer leading but soldiers (one radio between them I envision) in the bush heard the worldservice report and were reinvigorated. Now we need an immediate campaign to make NGOs responsible, & transparent. Who funds them and how do they spend their donations? #KONY2012
The 7th of March was a BIG day online for Africa, It trended on Twitter all day, (please read Samira Musa’s article) and that’s never happened before. Whether you’re on the right or the wrong side of this situation, having Africa on your mind is a good thing. So it should have been a day for humility in the West as in the empire’s name Africa has been raped and pillaged for centuries and its ongoing. I have included three posts that were made on my facebook page on the 7th March by Samira Musa, Daniel Renwick and Garakai Chengu in response to a neo colonialist who made some pretty ignorant comments about Samira’s article, race and intervention. They went in. We saw the light and dark side of social networks that day in response to that ridiculous war propaganda video.
Oh you’re one of them types. Them ‘something is better than nothing, we have to do SOMETHING cause our morals tell us to’ but your morals are non-existent when our governments embark on destructive and murderous wars and invasions in our name. And you really shouldn’t comment on me on a personal level cause you don’t me and frankly, you’re wrong. So check yourself and come correct yeah. And have you not learnt from history that if you’re a westerner than YES chances are you have bad intentions. Not your average Joe, I’m talking companies and governments. You don’t have to be black or African to fight injustices but you have to *acknowledge* the tools used by the west and white supremacy in order to knock down sovereign states. Also, AS AN AFRICAN (woops, offended?) I want AFRICAN states to be able to handle AFRICAN affairs on AFRICAN terms…you on the other hand clearly want western involvement which, as history shows, is regressive and detrimental to MY continent :) you’re so concerned with ‘saving’ Africa but do you even know what you’re saving it FROM? You sound like an ignorant Uncle Tom begging for Westerners to free us from the mess THEY put us in. Sitting and holding hands singing ‘kumbaya’ aunt gonna get us nowhere. If you knew me, you’d know my solutions and opinions on a wide range of issues but you don’t so again - come correct and don’t spew out bullshit. Perhaps you and your friends should donate to that dodgy charity and go beg for western intervention and see how far that gets you. You’re clearly a puppet and fail to see the bigger picture of imperialism that these governments are embarking upon. I’m gonna end it here cause you’re obviously a waste of time who thinks you can work *with* the enemy to get what you want. NEVER GONNA HAPPEN you silly child. Wake up! And keep that propaganda video to yourself. You’re so concerned with a black man in Africa but not a bunch of white men in Westminster. You’re a joke. Check yourself
All considerations about whether or not to release the dogs of war begin and end with the spoils
Uganda sits atop the geo-strategically important intersection of 7 oil rich African nations which Senior US Dept of Energy Analyst Sally Kornfeld has called “the future Gulf” “”I am amazed by what I have seen in Uganda, it might rival Saudi Arabia” she notes.
Mr. Kony is a bad, bad man but are hundreds of US Navy SEALs running around the African bush to stop him or to secure the biggest African onshore oil discovery in recorded history? 2 billion barrels no less.After the recent “Friends of Somalia” meeting - also on the back of an oil discovery - I cant help but muse that if only Palestine could discover…More on the spoils - lets remember that AFRICOM was created for two main reasons, oil and China. This century America will look to cart 3 Cs out of Africa: Crude, Capital and China. Stopping Kony is as much about killing an evil man as it is about stopping China’s advance into the continent.
China controls 97% of the Rare Earth Element (REE) market. US Geological Survey says Central Africa is home to high-grade full spectrum REEs not to mention diamonds, gold, platinum, copper, cobalt, tin, phosphates, tantalite, magnetite, uranium etc etc etc
“Ok so America is going in party for oil, I knew that and isn’t it worth it to leave with Kony’s head on a stick?” I hear you say.
Fact is the three previous US military Ops in Uganda - Operation North (1991) Operation Iron Fist (2002) and Operation Lightning Thunder (2008-2009) - have been unmitigated disasters, the military equivalent of poking a bee’s nest with a stick - Kony escaped, and in the ensuing reprisal and rampage 1,900 civilians were butchered and over 100,000 were displaced. As a consequence, local tribal, religious and community leaders all unanimously say military intervention is not the way. Mr Tomahawk will make things worse.
They propose all stakeholder seven nation talks, a regional force, pressure on Mr. Kony and eventual dialogue to end the nightmare. But alas, this solution remains a dream so long as the puppet President, America and the most sophisticated propaganda machine in history is drowning out local voices of reason.
Stop Kony! Stop Kony! Stop Kony! - by the time anyone sits down to discuss HOW to stop Mr Kony, they are tarred as a “political prostitute” a “dictator’s bum boy” or other such accolades my ilk have been showered with.
In short, lets “Stop Kony!” but lets do so by listening to the locals, regarding a non US military solution. And for goodness sake lets not wait for oil to be discovered in Palestine, Soweto or Qatar before we free the people. Oh oops.
Interesting exchange. Original Moogsta, where to start? Hmmm…maybe “the world’s most dangerous psychopath”? A highly subjective claim with little to no substantiation. Then, the retort to Sam, where you claim the fact that Kony is out of Uganda is irrelevant? Why is that? Look at the history of character assassination, you needn’t look far. The demonisation of political leaders Saddam, Gadaffi, Assad (currently), Lamumba, etc precipitates their covert assassination by special forces or the invasion of their territory. So, the linking of a leader with a territory he no longer occupies, in the call for the US army to invade, as your posts call for, is highly naive at best and colonialist at the worst. What was that thing about Osama Bin Laden and Afghanistan again? Why are we still there?
I like to use Hanlon’s razor when assessing interlocutors in debate: “never attribute to malice that which can be explained by ignorance”. But, you’d probably be more affronted to being called ignorant to being called a colonist. It can’t be colonialism or even neo-colonialism, that’s of the past, isn’t it?! Not exactly. Aid and the economics of dependency is a major area of post-colonial analysis, the writing is extensive and varied, but to see it as the saving grace of Africa or any third world or “developing” country is ignorant. Just look at the World Bank and IMF policies of structural adjustment. Look at how much debt is repaid to the West per year in comparison to the aid we donate or how much is spent on military technology, warfare, occupation and “aid” to allies like Israel. This is all A, B, C stuff, but you’re too “smart” to fall into the trap of seeing the world in a perpetual state of conflict. For you’ve seen the light, the world is no longer run by evil, evil rules the world, no matter the geography or skin colour. That’s great, but the statistics fly in the face of your analysis, as do state department documents, wikileaks, presidential speeches, congress reports, etc.
I do not doubt that you are a man of good intentions. You are, however, ensnared on the propaganda of the new colonialism/imperialism. You flatly deny it and focus your attentions in areas of the world where you have no agency. You empower military forces that have committed mass abuses and created states of civil war wherever their boots fell. You call younger, inspiring artists and writers ignorant for showing moral and emotional response to atrocities across this world; history, recent history and present.
You believe you schooled Samira, I wouldn’t be so cocksure. The world may not be black and white, but it’s in a state of war and being raped by an empire brutally concerned with the interests of a small few, who just to happen to be white. We do not live in post-racial times and those who fail to learn the lessons of history have their roles cast for them. Your role, my well-meaning friend, is imperialist, and you play it well. But your cherry picking of history and intellectual snobbery doesn’t intimidate those committed to challenging this world order.
My next piece will address all the Twitter Facebook responses I got from the 7th March onwards. It will be published on what I was told this morning was Joseph Kony Day?! The 30th April. I will address the ignorance of Imperialists and Anti imperialist on #KONY2012, the neo– colonial intentions of America, Africom, Invisible Children (and their funding) and of course OIL. The U.S influence has grown markedly in Uganda since 1986 when president Yoweri Museveini came to power and there are fears that under their guidance Uganda has become less and less democratic.
I want to thank the following people Samira Musa, Garikai Chengu ,Daniel Renwick, Robert Kazandjian, Afshin Shermirani, Angelo Izama, Richard Hall, Jerome Taylor, Laura Seay, Musa Okwanga, Anthony Anaxorouga, Jason D’Jehuti, Michael Hottag, Charles Oyango Obbo, Max Bilbow and Carlos Martinez who in the last week have spent their time firefighting this man made crisis. I reach out in solidarity they did some stellar work! In the meantime please read the links to the articles I have posted. Thank you.
Photo by Justus Kemper
Lastly Uganda you are in my heart, I miss you and I’ll be back soon.